Bessemer steel in Germany. The product is used for special steels, the acid metal being considered preferable.
Kirchhoff gives figures from the reports of several companies to show the profits of the industry. It is impossible to make any statement of profits and losses for these old plants, which have their own sources of raw material and sell everything from coal to machinery, but I have made a rough calculation that in the year 1898-99 the profits of Gutehoffoiungshutte represented $6 per ton on a production of 300,000 tons of steel. At Phoenix with an output of 330,000 tons, and at Bochum with 227,000 tons, the profit was $4 per ton. The taxes at GutehofEnungshiitte amounted to 44 cents per ton, and the funds for workmen's pensions, etc., footed up 48 cents per ton, while at Phoenix the taxes were 53 cents and the pensions 30 cents. These taxes and pensions include the mines, coke ovens, etc., and the profits include all subsidiary branches of the plant, but I have calculated the results on the output of steel, as these plants are miscellaneous steel producers and may rightly be compared with many works in America.
In Krupp's works there are fifteen acid-lined Bessemer converters, each of 5 tons capacity, and at Bochum there are 3 of 8 tons, a total of 18 acid vessels with an average of 5| tons capacity. The output of acid Bessemer steel in 1899, in the Euhr district, was 118,000 tons. It is quite certain that these converters were not worked to their full capacity, but if we assume that all the acid Bessemer steel was made at Krupp's the production will be only 660 tons per converter per month. In America we do not have many converters of this size, but twenty years ago, when the steel industry was in its infancy, it was considered that 120,000 tons per year was the proper output for two converters of this size, supplied with one ladle crane and pit. In other words, the product for each acid converter in Westphalia to-day is one-tenth what it was in America twenty years ago.
JSTo attempt has been made, either in Westphalia or in Lothringen, to specialize the rolling mills, and there is little thought of steady operation for large production, the controlling idea being that it is impossible to change rolls quickly, and that spare mills must lie idle, ready to start on a different section. The weak point of this plan is that it is difficult to arrange the hot bed and finishing part of the mills so as to serve two different trains of rolls. In one of the new